SPI Registry Review & Prep

The Sonography Principles & Instrumentation (SPI) examination is administered in conjunction with various specialty exams by the American Registry for Diagnostic Medical Sonography (ARDMS) to certify the continuing competency of ultrasound professionals. Prospective technologists must successfully pass the SPI exam in conjunction with any specialty exam to earn their Registered Diagnostic Medical Sonographer (RDMS) credential. The SPI and corresponding specialty exam can be taken in any order, as long as both are passed within a five-year period.


The LIVE online SPI registry review and preparation course will be scheduled 1 day a week, 3 hours per day, for a duration of 10 weeks, making this an effective way to review and prepare for the examination without an overload of information to absorb. The course material will break down physics into clear concepts, interesting descriptions, helpful discussions and useful analogies. This course has been created not only to help sonographers pass the exam but to provide a solid foundation of physics which elevates competence in the field. The course content has been developed from the ARDMS content outline for the SPI exam.


Upon successful completion of the SPI review course, students will have an understanding of:

Clinical Safety & Patient Care:

  • Ergonomics – Education & Training, uses different techniques during scanning
  • ALARA Principle – Practice in scanning
  • Output Control Practice – modify the displayed MI (Mechanical Index) & TI (Thermal Index)
  • Assessment of Clinical Environment & Take Critical Decision
  • Management of Critical Patient – Like patient with multiple tubing
  • Basic Cleaning & Disinfection of Transducer & Filter
  • Universal Precaution Practice During Scanning

Protocol & New Technologies:

  • Uses different technique during scanning the specific organ and follow the clinical features and finding. Tailor the exam based on ongoing situation and findings.
  • Perform Elastography
  • Uses 3D & 4D Imaging
  • Uses Contrast Agents
  • Integration of Other Imaging Modalities with Ultrasound

Physical Principles:

  • Basic Math & Units, Metric Systems & Unit Conversions
  • Sound: Definition & Type of Sound
  • Acoustic Variables
  • Acoustic Parameters & Their Interrelationship
  • CW & PW: Additional 5 Parameters
  • Intensities: Spatial & Temporal Consideration
  • Interaction of Sound & Media: Decibels, Logarithm, Attenuation, Half-Value Layer Thickness, Impedance
  • Range Equation
  • Axial Resolution
  • Lateral Resolution
  • Temporal Resolution
  • Real Time Imaging

Ultrasound Transducer:

  • Transducer Construction
  • Piezoelectric Effect, Quality Factor
  • Transducer Frequencies
  • Sound Beam: Anatomy of Sound Beam
  • Sound Beam Depth & Divergence
  • Focusing
  • Display Mode
  • 2D Imaging
  • Types of Transducers, Classification of Transducer to Select Proper Types of Transducer at a Particular Clinical Situation
  • Phased Array Transducer
  • Steering & Focusing
  • Side Lobes & Grating Lobes
  • Apodization

Pulsed Instrumentation:

  • Ultrasound System Components
  • Noise & System Output Gain
  • Order of Receiver Operation
  • Anatomy of TGC Curve
  • DR – Dynamic Range
  • Image Display & Image Storage
  • Fields & Frames
  • Bistable vs. Gray Scale Displays
  • Scan Converters – Analog vs. Digital Numbers
  • Pixel & Pixel Density, Bit & Bytes
  • Calculating the Number of Gray Shade
  • Image Processing – Pre & Post Processing
  • Magnification – Read & Write Magnification
  • Recording & Archiving Techniques
  • Harmonics
  • Artifact & Bioeffect

Doppler & Hemodynamics:

  • Doppler Effect & Doppler Equation
  • Types of Doppler, Speed vs. Velocity
  • Sound Beam & Flow Direction
  • Doppler Angle & Sample Volume
  • CW Doppler & PW Doppler
  • Aliasing
  • Nyquist Limit
  • Correction of Aliasing
  • Predicting Flow Direction
  • Doppler Artifact
  • Optimization of Doppler During Clinical Practice
  • Laminar Flow vs. Turbulent Flow
  • Stenosis, Resistive Index, Pulsatility Index
  • Energy Gradient – Why Does Blood Move?
  • Energy Loss in Circulation
  • Pressure Flow Relationship, Bernoulli Principle, Ohms Law

Quality Assurance:

  • AIUM 100mm Test Object
  • Pin Set & Evaluation
  • Tissue Equivalent Phantom
  • Doppler Phantom
  • Slice Thickness Phantom
  • Sensitivity & Registration Accuracy
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